Chapter 1, Section 1 - The Nature of Science
Science - Knowledge that you get by observing things in order to discover facts and create laws/principles that can be tested.
Technology - The application of science for a practical purpose.
Law - A statement/equation that reliably predicts events under certain conditions.
- Law of Gravity
- Newton's Laws of Motion
- Law of Conservation of Matter
Theory - A set of ideas that explains many related observations and is supported by a large body of evidence.
- Atomic Theory
- Big Bang Theory
- Evolutionary Theory
- Theories must...
- explain observations clearly and consistently.
- be able to be shown in experiments that can be repeated.
- allow you to predict the results of an experiment.
- Physical Model
- Can be touched.
- Look/act like the real thing.
- Mathematical Model
- Made up of equations and data.
- Can include computer models, such as a weather map.
- Conceptual Model
- Made up of many hypotheses.
- Provide a reference - such as the atomic model.
Chapter 1, Section 2 - The Way Science Works
- State the Problem (Ask a Question)
- Background Research (What is already known?)
- Make a Hypothesis (Educated guess to answer the question.)
- Do an Experiment (To see if your hypothesis is right.)
Analyze the Data (Organize it, see what it means.)Make a Conclusion (Accept/Reject/Modify your hypothesis.)Communicate Your Results.
- Make observations.
- Collect data (raw information - not organized).
Variable - Something that changes in an experiment.
SI - International System of Units
- Seven base units - shown in the table at right.
- Derived units - made of combinations of base units.
- And so on...
- Prefixes used for large and small measurements...
- giga- (G) = billion
- mega- (M) = million
- kilo- (k) = thousand
- deci- (d) = one-tenth
- centi- (c) = one-hundredth
- milli- (m) = one-thousandth
- micro- (mc) = one millionth
- nano- (n) = one billionth
Chapter 1, Section 3 - Organizing Data
- Continuous Data
- Data that continues over time.
- Use a line graph.
- Discrete Data
- Data in clumps.
- Use a bar graph.
- Percent Data
- Data that reflects "part of the whole".
- Use a pie graph.
Scientific Notation - A method of expressing a quantity as a number multiplied by ten to a given power.
- 93,000,000 miles (from the Earth to the Sun) is written as 9.3 x 107
- 0.0000000199 is written as 1.99 x 108
- This is helpful for very large and very small numbers.
- When multiplying numbers written in Scientific Notation,...
- multiply the first numbers
- add the exponents on the powers of ten
- When dividing numbers written in Scientific Notation,...
- divide the first numbers
- subtract the exponents on the powers of ten
- Tell you how to round off numbers, based on the precision of the measurement.
- Always use the number of significant digits of the least precise measurement.
- When adding/subtracting, you can't have more decimal places than the smallest number of decimal places.