Chapter 1, Section 1  The Nature of Science Science  Knowledge that you get by observing things in order to discover facts and create laws/principles that can be tested.
Technology  The application of science for a practical purpose.
Law  A statement/equation that reliably predicts events under certain conditions.  Examples...
 Law of Gravity
 Newton's Laws of Motion
 Law of Conservation of Matter
Theory  A set of ideas that explains many related observations and is supported by a large body of evidence.  Examples...
 Atomic Theory
 Big Bang Theory
 Evolutionary Theory
 Theories must...
 explain observations clearly and consistently.
 be able to be shown in experiments that can be repeated.
 allow you to predict the results of an experiment.
Models  Physical Model
 Can be touched.
 Look/act like the real thing.
 Mathematical Model
 Made up of equations and data.
 Can include computer models, such as a weather map.
 Conceptual Model
 Made up of many hypotheses.
 Provide a reference  such as the atomic model.
Chapter 1, Section 2  The Way Science Works Scientific Method  State the Problem (Ask a Question)
 Background Research (What is already known?)
 Make a Hypothesis (Educated guess to answer the question.)
 Do an Experiment (To see if your hypothesis is right.)
 Make observations.
 Collect data (raw information  not organized).
 Analyze the Data (Organize it, see what it means.)
 Make a Conclusion (Accept/Reject/Modify your hypothesis.)
 Communicate Your Results.
Variable  Something that changes in an experiment. SI  International System of Units  Seven base units  shown in the table at right.
 Derived units  made of combinations of base units.
 Volume
 Speed
 Pressure
 Force
 And so on...
 Prefixes used for large and small measurements...
 giga (G) = billion
 mega (M) = million
 kilo (k) = thousand
 deci (d) = onetenth
 centi (c) = onehundredth
 milli (m) = onethousandth
 micro (mc) = one millionth
 nano (n) = one billionth
Chapter 1, Section 3  Organizing Data Graphs  Continuous Data
 Data that continues over time.
 Use a line graph.
 Discrete Data
 Data in clumps.
 Use a bar graph.
 Percent Data
 Data that reflects "part of the whole".
 Use a pie graph.
Scientific Notation  A method of expressing a quantity as a number multiplied by ten to a given power.  93,000,000 miles (from the Earth to the Sun) is written as 9.3 x 10^{7}
 0.0000000199 is written as 1.99 x 10^{8}
 This is helpful for very large and very small numbers.
 When multiplying numbers written in Scientific Notation,...
 multiply the first numbers
 add the exponents on the powers of ten
 When dividing numbers written in Scientific Notation,...
 divide the first numbers
 subtract the exponents on the powers of ten
Significant Figures  Tell you how to round off numbers, based on the precision of the measurement.
 Always use the number of significant digits of the least precise measurement.
 When adding/subtracting, you can't have more decimal places than the smallest number of decimal places.
